the beats headphones on sale VLA and ALMA Team Up to Give First Look at Birthplaces of Most Current Stars
Astronomers have gotten their first look at exactly where most of today stars were born. To do so, they used the National Science Foundation Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to look at distant galaxies seen as they were some 10 billion years ago.
At that time, the Universe was experiencing its peak rate of star formation. Most stars in the present Universe were born then.
Radio waves, unlike visible light, can get through the dust. However, in order to reveal the details of such distant and faint galaxies, the astronomers had to make the most sensitive images ever made with the VLA.
The new observations, using the VLA and ALMA, have answered longstanding questions about just what mechanisms were responsible for the bulk of star formation in those galaxies. They found that intense star formation in the galaxies they studied most frequently occured throughout the galaxies, as opposed to much smaller regions in present day galaxies with similar high star formation rates.
Radio/Optical combination images of distant galaxies as seen with NSF Very Large Array and NASA Hubble Space Telescope. Their distances from Earth are indicated in the top set of images. Credit: K. Trisupatsilp, NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA. Download image
The astronomers used the VLA and ALMA to study galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, a small area of sky observed since 2003 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST made very long exposures of the area to detect galaxies in the far distant Universe, and numerous observing programs with other telescopes have followed up on the HST work.
used the VLA and ALMA to see deeply into these galaxies, beyond the dust that obscured their innards from Hubble, said Kristina Nyland, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). VLA showed us where star formation was occurring, and ALMA revealed the cold gas that is the fuel for star formation, she added.
this study, we made the most sensitive image ever made with the VLA, said Preshanth Jagannathan, also of NRAO. you took your cellphone, which transmits a weak radio signal, and put it at more than twice the distance to Pluto, near the outer edge of the Solar System, its signal would be roughly as strong as what we detected from these galaxies, he added.
This research is presented in a paper titled “VLA And ALMA Imaging of Intense, Galaxy Wide Star Formation in z 2 Galaxies” by Rujopakarn et al., published in the Astrophysical Journal.
The research team is composed by W. Rujopakarn [1,2], J. S. Dunlop , G. H. Rieke , R. J. Ivison [3,5], A. Cibinel , K. Nyland , P. Jagannathan , J. D. Silverman , D. M. Alexander , A. D. Biggs , S. Bhatnagar , D. R. Ballantyne , M. Dickinson , D. Elbaz , J. E. Geach , C. C. Hayward [14,15], A. Kirkpatrick , R. J. McLure , M. J. Michaowski , N. A. Miller , D. Narayanan , F. N. Owen , M. Pannella , C. Papovich , A. Pope , U. Rau , B. E. Robertson , D. Scott , A. M. Swinbank , P. van der Werf , E. van Kampen , B. J. Weiner ,
and R. A. Windhorst .
 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277 8583, Japan.
 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
 Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
 Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH, UK.
 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA.
 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801, USA.
 Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
 Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.
 National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.
 CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d Orme des Merisiers, F 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France.
 Center for Astrophysics Research, Science Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK.
 Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA.
 Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
 Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Stevenson University, Stevenson, MD 21153 0641, USA.